10 Most Common Monsoon Diseases in India - Prevention and Precautions

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10 Most Common Monsoon Diseases in India - Prevention and Precautions
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After the summers heat, the monsoon season is eagerly awaited and brings much relief. Rains are definitely a relief from the heat, but they also bring along with them various  diseases. With every monsoon season, the risk of catching various illnesses increases. Maintaining basic hygiene like washing hands with soap and sanitization helps prevent monsoon diseases. There is increased exposure to multiple microorganisms like viruses, bacteria resulting in the transmission of a number of diseases which is higher during the monsoon than anytime else. An early diagnosis can prevent unwanted complications and in some cases, death and a few basic preventive and hygiene measures can keep you stay safe. The monsoons are the most fertile breeding season for mosquitoes and microorganisms. Humidity, stagnant water, and mud are where multiple viruses and bacteria thrive, increasing the risk of infections. Fever is a common symptom amongst most of the diseases. Hence the correct diagnosis and treatment and help you recover early. Mosquitoes, air, contaminated food and water are primary sources of diseases. We have listed some common diseases which are highly prevalent during this season that you should be aware of.

1. Malaria:

  • It is caused by plasmodium parasites, which are transmitted through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes, it is a life-threatening disease.
  • It is preventable and curable but accounts for more than 4 lakh deaths globally.
  • It peaks during and just after the rainy season. Generally10 - 15 days after the infective mosquito bite, a patient might start showing Malaria Symptoms which can include:
  • Body ache
  • Diarrhea
  • Headaches
  • Decrease in body temperature with excessive sweating
  • High fever
  • Moderate to severe chills
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Weakness

Malaria Preventive measures: 

Prevent Malaria by protecting yourself from mosquito bites by applying insect repellent to exposed skin and clothing as mosquitoes may bite through thin clothing, wear long-sleeved clothing and long pants while outdoors and at night, use a mosquito net over the bed, spray mosquito repellent insecticide in your bedroom before sleeping.

2. Dengue:

  • This is also transmitted by female mosquitoes of the species Aedes aegypti.
  • Mild flu-like illness is typical of the dengue virus. However, this develops into a life-threatening complication called dengue hemorrhagic fever.
  • After the bite from an infected mosquito, there is an incubation period of 4 - 10 days, and the symptoms usually persist for 2 - 7 days.
  • Dengue is suspected when there is an intermittent high fever and has any two of the following signs and symptoms:
  • Low platelet count
  • Nausea
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Rash
  • Severe headache
  • Vomiting
  • Exhaustion
  • Muscle and joint ache

Dengue Preventive measures:

Prevent dengue by protecting yourself from mosquito bites by wearing long-sleeved clothing and long pants while outdoors and at night, applying insect repellent to exposed skin and clothing as mosquitoes may bite through thin clothing, use a mosquito net over the bed, spray mosquito repellent insecticide in your bedroom before sleeping.

3. Chikungunya:

  • The meaning of Chikungunya is that which bends up and is called so because of its arthritis-like symptoms.
  • It is a viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes of the species Aedes aegypti and is also caused by the chikungunya virus.
  • Chikungunya occurs mostly in Asia and India. According to statistics India has known to report more than 62,000 cases in previous years.
  • Chikungunya Symptoms usually occur 4-8 days later after a bite from the infected mosquito and include:
  • Pain in joints and bones
  • Stiffness

Chikungunya  Preventive measures: 

Prevent Chikungunya by protecting yourself from mosquito bites by spraying mosquito repellent insecticide in your bedroom before sleeping, use a mosquito net over the bed, applying insect repellent to exposed skin and clothing as mosquitoes may bite through thin clothing, wear long-sleeved clothing and long pants while outdoors and at night.

4. Hepatitis A:

  • Caused by the Hepatitis A virus, this is a highly contagious liver infection.
  • Being a waterborne viral infection, it generally is caused by drinking contaminated water or food which is infected with the virus from the stool of someone who is already infected.
  • Flies are also known to spread the virus. Consuming foods, contaminated while handling causes the infection to spread.
  • Symptoms of Hepatitis A include:
  • Jaundice
  • Stomach pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Fever
  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue

Hepatitis A  Preventive measures: 

Prevent Hepatitis A by always keeping your hands clean by washing your hands with soap after using the bathroom, changing diapers, and before cooking or eating food.

5. Typhoid:

  • Caused by Salmonella Typhi. This is a life-threatening infection.
  • This is also a water-borne infection that usually spreads through food or contaminated water which is uncovered or spoilt.
  • As per reports, more than 10 million are affected by this virus and globally more than 1 lakh people die from it.
  • Symptoms of typhoid fever include:
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Constipation
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Headache
  • Prolonged fever

Typhoid Preventive measures: 

Prevent typhoid by getting vaccinated, avoid raw fruits and vegetables, avoid under cooked food, boil water before drinking, and wash your hands with soap before eating.

6. Gastroenteritis:

  • Food poisoning along with gastroenteritis is common during the monsoons.
  • Symptoms of gastroenteritis are:
  • Stomach cramps
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Malaise
  • Weakness

Gastroenteritis Preventive measures: 

Prevent Gastroenteritis by avoiding contaminated water especially when travelling, cook food well before eating, avoid eating raw fruits and vegetables, wash your hands with soap before eating.

7.Cholera:

  • Cholera is caused by the bacteriaVibrio cholerae which is found in contaminated food or water.
  • Cholera can lead to death within hours, if not given proper treatment.
  • As per reports, there are up to to 4 million cases of cholera per year.
  • People infected cholera show mild symptoms including:
  • Watery loose motions
  • Severe dehydration

Cholera Preventive measures: 

Prevent cholera by avoiding raw fruits and vegetables, cook food well before eating, wash your hands with soap before eating and drink safe water by boiling it.

8.Leptospirosis:

  • The bacteria Leptospira causes leptospirosis, which affects humans and animals.
  • The urine of animals is a medium for the spread of the bacteria.
  • It occurs mostly due to contact with dirty water, muck, and mud.
  • Symptoms Leptospirosis of include:
  • High fever
  • Headache
  • Chills

Leptospirosis Preventive measures: 

Prevent Leptospirosis by not swimming in stagnant water where animals are washed, use pest control to keep away rodents as they are the main carriers.

9.Common cold:

  • Changes in the temperatures during the rainy season can cause common cold, viral infections.
  • People with a weaker immune system are more prone to contracting the common cold.
  • Signs of common cold are:
  • Runny nose
  • Sore throat
  • Watery eyes
  • Fever
  • Chills

Common Cold Preventive measures: 

Prevent common cold by avoiding close contact with sick people, wash your hands with soap before touching your face, don’t smoke.

10.Influenza:

  • Most commonly called the seasonal flu, it is caused by influenza viruses.
  • Highly contagious it spreads from person to person via
  • Signs and symptoms of the flu include:
  • Fever
  • Sore throat
  • Headaches
  • Diarrhea
  • Cough
  • Runny nose
  • Muscle ache
  • Fatigue
  • Vomiting

Influenza Preventive measures: 

Prevent Influenza by keeping your hands clean by washing them  with soap before touching your face, avoiding close contact with sick people, sleep well and exercise.

If you show signs and symptoms of high fever, nausea, rash, vomiting, loose stools please consult a doctor immediately to avoid further complications.

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