Most Common Conditions and Diseases Treated by ENT Specialists

Most Common Conditions and Diseases Treated by ENT Specialists
 - Indore

ENT Surgeon

Indore   |   25 Apr 2023

Who is an ENT Specialist?

An ENT specialist is a doctor who has received additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and medical conditions affecting the ear, nose, and throat in both adults and children. These specialists are also known as Otorhinolaryngologists or ENT Surgeons. When you consult an ENT specialist near you, it is reassuring to know that they will treat a wide variety of problems that are either acute or chronic, and they may do so either with medications or with the help of surgery if required. Otolaryngologists are not only trained and qualified to prescribe medications, but they are also trained to perform various surgical procedures on the nose, ear, and throat.

What are the qualifications of an ENT Specialist?

An ENT for ear, nose, and throat problems would have completed 5 ½ years of MBBS training, followed either by a 2-year Diploma in Otorhinolaryngology, or a 3-year of Masters training in MS ENT or Otorhinolaryngology.

Are there other subspecialties in ENT?

There are subspecialties and specialty areas of focus in ENT. They include

Head & Neck Oncologic Surgery: A specialty that focuses on surgical procedures for the management and treatment of non-cancerous and cancerous tumors of the salivary glands, oral cavity, thyroid, parathyroid, pharynx, and larynx.

Facial & Plastic Reconstructive Surgery: A specialty that focuses on surgical procedures to enhance or reshape the structure of the face and neck.

Laryngology & Voice Disorders Specialty: A specialty that focuses on the diagnoses and treatment of diseases and disorders of the larynx and other voice disorders in adults and children including those caused due to neurological problems, cancers, etc.

Neurotology: A specialty that focuses on diagnosing and treating disorders of balance, and disorders of the ear that are caused due to neurological conditions.

OtologyA specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and management of disorders of balance, dizziness, and diseases only of the ear.

Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology: A specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and management either medically or surgically, of disorders of the ear, nose, tongue, and other structures in the head and neck region in infants and children.

Rhinology & Sinus Surgery:

A specialty that focuses on the diagnosis, management, and treatment either medically or surgically, of problems of the nose and the nasal sinuses.

Common conditions and diseases of the ear treated by an ENT Specialist:

Ear diseases are more common in infants, children, and the elderly and can arise due to problems within the ear, sinuses, or even the head and neck. The common diseases and medical conditions affecting the ear that are treated by an ENT specialist near you include the following

Hearing loss & Deafness:

Hearing loss also known as partial deafness is the reduced ability to hear sound through one or both ears, and deafness is a complete loss of hearing, and the inability to hold a conversation, identify and respond to speech, etc. While it usually affects the elderly, even children can suffer from deafness. It is caused by a number of factors such as exposure to loud noise, medical conditions affecting the ears, abnormalities of the small bones within the ear, damage to structures such as the cochlea within the ear, and neurological problems affecting the transmission of information from the inner ear to the brain through the auditory nerve. Depending on the underlying medical condition ENT specialists will treat deafness by first identifying the underlying cause with the help of investigations such as audiometry, etc., and then through the use of hearing aids

Ear pain: 

Ear pain can be caused due to problems arising directly from within the ear such as ear infections, or it can be referred pain from problems affecting the nose or sinuses that lie in close proximity to the structures of the ear. Treatment for ear pain requires the identification of the underlying cause and then treating it.

Impacted Ear wax: 

Impacted Ear wax cerumen is produced within the ear and its main function is to keep the ear clean, however, sometimes there is an excess build-up of ear wax, and it gets impacted and cannot be naturally removed by the ear. This can lead to ear pain, fullness, hearing problems, dizziness, etc., and will require an otolaryngologist to use medications or minor procedures to clear it.

Ear infections:

Ear infections are quite common in children and infants, and they can be seen either as otitis media which is an infection of the middle ear, or otitis externa or swimmer’s ear which is an infection of the outer ear. Treatment for ear infections depends on the severity of the conditions and is usually done with the help of antibiotics.

Discharge or Fluid from the Ear

It can be due to the build-up of fluid within the ear due to inflammation. When the fluid becomes sticky, it can lead to a condition called glue ear.

Tinnitus:

A ringing sensation or strange noises in the ear that are heard even when they are not actually present. This is commonly associated with conditions such as hearing loss, impacted earwax, exposure to loud noises, ear infections, tumors, head injuries

Meniere’s Disease: 

It is caused due to a problem in the inner ear that results in hearing loss and problems with balance, along with nausea and vomiting, mostly in the age group of 35-50 years. It is mainly caused by a build-up of fluid in the inner ear.

Cholesteatoma: 

It is a cyst or noncancerous abnormal growth that forms behind the eardrum and arises from the cells of the eardrum. It can grow to very large sizes if it is not treated.

Vertigo:

Vertigo is the feeling of dizziness and a spinning sensation and is mainly caused by the formation of crystals within the part of the inner ear that controls balance. It can also be caused by other serious conditions.

Common diseases and conditions of the nose treated by ENT Specialists:

There are many diseases and medical conditions that affect the nose and the nasal sinuses, and the common ones that are seen by Otorhinolaryngologists near you include

Allergic Rhinitis:

It is one of the commonest conditions affecting many people and is caused by an inflammation of the inner lining of the nose caused by a hyperactive response of the immune system to otherwise harmless substances such as pollen, dust, mold, animal dander, etc.

Acute and Chronic Sinusitis and Sinus Problems:

It is the inflammation of the inner lining of the nasal sinuses caused secondary to an infection like the common cold or other upper respiratory tract infections or allergies. It can also be caused by polyps in the nose, or a deviated nasal septum.

Deviated Nasal Septum:

It is caused by the deviation to one side of the thin septum separating the two nasal cavities. It can be caused by injury or be present from the time of birth. It can cause nasal obstruction, facial pain, and nosebleeds

Nose Bleeds or Epistaxis:

Nose Bleeds or Epistaxis is the bleeding that occurs from the nose and is more common in children and older adults. Nosebleeds can be due to trauma, infections, chemical irritants and fumes, cold and dry weather, deviated nasal septum, or frequent use of nasal sprays.

Nasal Fractures:

Nasal Fractures are fractures of the nasal bones that most commonly occur due to trauma especially during sports or due to a fall. It can lead to difficulty breathing, swelling, pain, and black eyes. Realignment of the bones and sometimes surgery may be needed.

Nasal and Paranasal Growths and Tumors:

Abnormal cancerous and noncancerous growths can occur in the nose and sinuses leading to various problems. Risk factors include smoking, air pollution, exposure to chemical and toxic fumes, and HPV infection. Treatment may include surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy.

Common diseases and conditions of the throat treated by ENT Specialists:

ENT doctors for ear, nose, and throat problems treat a variety of throat problems that include

Acute Laryngitis and hoarseness of voice:

Acute Laryngitis and hoarseness of voice are caused by inflammation and swelling of the vocal cords due to overuse, infections, or trauma. Treatment can include rest, medications, and in some cases surgical interventions.

Thyroid disease and thyroid nodules:

The thyroid gland is present in the front of the neck and is an important endocrine gland and it can be affected by conditions such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, enlargement of the gland, and the formation of nodules. When medical treatment by endocrinologists is not providing relief, surgical interventions may need to be done by an ENT specialist near you.

Tonsils and Adenoid Problems:

The tonsils and adenoids are lymphatic tissue that helps to fight infections. The tonsils are present at the back of the mouth and the adenoids behind the nasal tract. Repeated infections can cause an inflammation of the tonsils and adenoids leading to enlargement. Treatment is usually with medications or via surgery.

Snoring, Sleep Apnea, and sleep disorders:

Snoring is caused by the rapid vibration of the muscles and vocal cords during sleep when the air passes by these muscles that are in a relaxed state. In Sleep Apnea or Obstructed Sleep Apnea, the airways become blocked and this causes a rapid decline in the blood oxygen, resulting in a disruption and waking up from sleep. These problems can lead to more serious systemic problems if not checked up by seeking the help of a specialist

Difficulty Swallowing:

Difficulty Swallowing also known as dysphagia can be for solids or liquids and can have a number of underlying causes such as problems with the food pipe or esophagus such as strictures, achalasia, spasm, esophageal tumors, gastric reflux disease, etc., or it can have neurological causes such as certain disorders like multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's, etc., or stroke, brain or spinal cord injury, etc.

Acid Reflux or Gastric Reflux:

Acid Reflux or Gastric Reflux is caused when the acids produced in the stomach flow back into the esophagus, and can sometimes even affect the larynx or the voice box.

Seeking the help of a specialist:

When there are problems related to the ear, nose, or throat, an ENT specialist near you is the right specialist you should be seeking help from. When meeting an ENT specialist, explain clearly the problems being experienced, and be prepared for a clinical examination of the nose, ears, and throat. The specialist may advise additional investigations such as blood tests or imaging tests to confirm their diagnosis and provide you with the most appropriate treatment.

 

 

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