Anterior Segment Surgery includes surgical procedures that are performed in the front one-third of the eye (an anterior segment of the eye), and include the cornea, iris, ciliary body, and the lens.
Anterior Segment Surgery may include both elective as well as emergency procedures.
Anterior Segment Surgery may include the following procedures:
Some of the indications for Anterior Segment Surgery include:
The risk factors and contraindications for Anterior Segment Surgery depend on the type of surgery that is being performed. Some general contraindications and risk factors include:
The investigations before Anterior Segment Surgery depend on the type of surgery that is being performed. Some general investigations that may be done include:
Before performing Anterior Segment Surgery the following is done:
Duration: Anterior segment surgeries can last from 20 minutes to a few hours depending on the type of surgery that is being performed.
Anesthesia: Anterior segment surgeries are usually performed under local anesthesia with IV sedation, topical anesthesia, and sometimes under general anesthesia, depending on the type of surgery that is being done.
Most anterior segment surgeries follow these steps to gain entry to the anterior chamber. Depending on the type of surgery that is being done subsequent steps would vary. Proper sterile precautions are taken and the face and the eyelashes are thoroughly cleaned, and a sterile drape is applied over the face, leaving only the eye exposed and the eyelashes out of the way. A needle is inserted through the lower lid and an anesthetic injected to numb the area behind the eyeball and pressure is then applied on the eyeball to stop any potential bleeding as well as to reduce the intraocular pressure.
An incision of size 3mm is then made on the side of the anesthetized cornea and a viscoelastic fluid is injected to reduce the shock to the intraocular tissues.
After the procedure of anterior segment, surgery is completed:
Common post-procedure observations:
Medications: Pain reliever medications for pain may be prescribed. Antibiotic eye drops and medication to reduce intraocular pressure or inflammation may be prescribed and may need to be used for as long as advised by the attending specialists.
Discharge: Discharge is dependent on the type of procedure that is done and maybe as early as on the same day or sometimes on the 2nd - 3rd postoperative day.
Review: Anterior segment surgeries are generally reviewed on the first postoperative day (after 24 hours). Subsequent reviews are usually after week 1, week 3, and week 6-8 after the surgery or as advised by the attending specialist.
Resumption of normal activities: Usually with some restrictions may be as early as 1-3 days after the surgery to as late as 2-3 weeks after the surgery.
Some measures that need to be taken while recovering from anterior segment surgical procedures include:
Some complications of anterior segment surgeries may include the following although they are dependent entirely on the type of surgical procedure that is being done are:
The prognosis for anterior segment surgeries is generally very good, although it depends on the underlying condition that is being treated, as well as the surgery that is being performed.
While most anterior segment surgeries do not require hospitalization, some procedures may require a brief hospital stay.
Anterior segment surgeries are performed by specialists from the Department of Ophthalmology.