Larynx surgery is a surgical procedure that is done on for the management of disorders or diseases affecting the larynx or the voice box. Most larynx surgeries are done for the management of laryngeal cancer, while some other minor conditions may also benefit from larynx surgery.
Larynx surgery is generally done as an elective procedure.
Larynx surgery may be of the following types
Some indications for larynx throat surgery may include the following
Some contraindications for throat surgery include the following
Some investigations that are done before a throat surgery may include the following
Before a larynx surgery, the following is advised
Duration: Depending on the type of procedure, throat surgery may last between 1-4 hours or more.
Anesthesia: Larynx surgeries are usually done under general anesthesia, other than minor procedures that may be done under local anesthesia.
Description of the procedure:
With the individual lying down, IV lines and foley’s catheter in place, and after the anesthetic has taken effect, a skin incision is made in the neck, the muscles and deep tissue are separated, and care is taken to keep important blood vessels out of the way. The hyoid bone and the thyroid cartilage are identified and separated. A tracheostomy is done to allow for entry of air into the lungs after the larynx (which is the connection between the mouth and the lungs) is removed. Depending on the procedure either a part or whole of the larynx is removed. In a partial laryngectomy, at least one vocal cord is retained, while in a total laryngectomy the larynx, a part of the pharynx, and if regional lymph nodes are affected due to cancer they are removed too.
Instead of an open neck incision the procedure is carried out via the use of an endoscope. If laser larynx microsurgery is being done the removal of the tumor tissue and the larynx is done using a laser. The endoscope is introduced into the throat via the mouth.
This is a type of phono surgery in which the cartilages of the voice box are modified to achieve proper vocal fold tension for optimal sound production. In a Laryngeal framework surgery, the thyroid, arytenoid, or the cricoid cartilage may be modified to improve the position and function of the vocal folds. This is usually done under conscious sedation.
Mostly done as a laryngotracheal reconstruction surgery in which both the larynx and the trachea are reconstructed. Laryngeal reconstruction surgery may be done as a single-stage reconstruction or a double stage reconstruction. In a single-stage laryngeal reconstruction surgery, a tracheostomy can be avoided.
Laryngeal reinnervation surgery is done to restore the nerve connections of the larynx which are responsible for the movement of the vocal cords. In a laryngeal reinnervation surgery, the dysfunctional recurrent laryngeal nerve (which is the main nerve controlling the larynx) is attached to another nerve called the ansa cervicalis which helps to improve the transmission of nerve signals to the vocal cords.
This is a minimally invasive surgery done with an endoscope. In a laryngeal cleft repair surgery, the cleft which is an abnormal connection between the voice box and the food pipe(esophagus) is closed. Laryngeal cleft surgery is indicated in children who do not respond to conservative therapy via injections to close the cleft.
After throat surgery, the following may be done
Discharge: For minor larynx surgery procedures the discharge is usually on the 2nd or 3rd postoperative day. For major larynx surgery procedures, discharge is usually after 10-14 days.
Medication: Pain relievers and antibiotics are usually prescribed.
Review: Regular reviews are done over the next 6 months to 1 year with the first review being 5-7 days after discharge.
Resumption of normal activities: Usually with restrictions 6-8 weeks after the major larynx surgery procedures. The resumption of normal activities is usually earlier for minor larynx surgery procedures.
Some measures that are needed after throat surgery include
Some complications that may be seen after larynx surgeries may include the following
The prognosis of larynx surgeries depends on the type of procedure and the condition that is being treated. Early-stage cancers and other noncancerous conditions treated with larynx cancer surgery have a good prognosis. Late-stage cancers have a poor prognosis and are associated with both high morbidity and mortality.
Hospitalization will be required for some larynx surgeries while some larynx surgeries may be done as office or daycare procedures.
Larynx Surgeries are done by specialists from the Department of Otorhinolaryngology (ENT).