Laparoscopic colon surgery is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that is done to treat diseases and conditions that affect the colon. It is done as an alternative to open surgery as it has fewer complications, shorter stay in the hospital, less postoperative pain, less scarring, and early return to normal activities.
Laparoscopic colon surgery is done as an elective procedure.
Laparoscopic colon surgery can be of the following types:
The indications for Laparoscopic colon surgery may include the following:
The contraindications for Laparoscopic colon surgery may include:
Some investigations that may be done before Laparoscopic colon surgery may include:
Before Laparoscopic colon surgery, the following is done:
Duration: Laparoscopic colon surgery may last between 3 to 6 hours depending on the procedure that is being done.
Anesthesia: Laparoscopic colon surgery is usually done under general anesthesia with epidural anesthesia for postoperative pain management.
With the individual lying on his/her back, IV lines and of a urinary catheter are put in place, and after the anesthesia has taken effect multiple small incisions are given in the abdomen. A fiber-optic scope this passed through one of the incisions and other surgical instruments are passed through the other incisions after insufflation of the abdomen is done. Depending on the underlying condition part or whole of the colon may be cut and removed, polyps and growths may be removed, narrowing or strictures of the colon may be dilated. Further, depending on the procedure that was done, the cut ends of the colon may be reattached, the ileum may be attached to the anal canal (ileoanal anastomosis), an opening might be made in the abdomen called an ostomy to which either the colon (colostomy) or the ileum (ileostomy) may be attached to remove the waste from the body through a pouch (colostomy bag) which is attached to the opening. In some cases, laparoscopic surgery may need to be converted into open surgery.
Laparoscopic right colectomy or right hemicolectomy: In a laparoscopic right hemicolectomy the terminal portion of the ileum (small intestine), the right colon, or the ascending colon, the beginning of the transverse colon are removed. This is followed by an anastomosis (joining) of the ileum with the remaining portion of the transverse colon. If a right hemicolectomy is being done for a cancerous lesion in the colon then the amount of colon removed depends on the spread of cancer.
Laparoscopic left colectomy or left hemicolectomy: In a laparoscopic left hemicolectomy the rectum, the sigmoid colon, and the distal portion of the transverse colon are removed and a coloanal anastomosis is done in which the remaining part of the transverse colon is joined with the anal canal.
Laparoscopic total or subtotal colectomy: In a laparoscopic total or subtotal colectomy, the entire colon is removed, and usually, the lower portion of the rectum is left behind. The small intestine is joined with the rectal canal to create an ileorectal anastomosis.
Laparoscopic colostomy: In a laparoscopic colostomy, the remaining functional bowel is brought to the opening (stoma) created in the abdominal wall to enable fecal diversion. The feces from the bowel is collected via the stoma in the abdominal wall into a colostomy bag. A colostomy may be a temporary procedure or a permanent procedure. A temporary colostomy is also known as a loop colostomy and this procedure can be reversed at a later date. A permanent colostomy is also called an end colostomy. A colostomy may be a transverse colostomy in which the transverse colon is brought out through the stoma which is usually present on the upper part of the abdomen, or an ascending colostomy in which the ascending or right colon is brought out through the stoma which is present on the right side of the abdomen, or a descending colostomy in which the descending colon or the left colon is brought out through the stoma which is present on the left side of the abdomen.
After Laparoscopic colon surgery, the following is usually done:
Common post-procedure occurrences after laparoscopic colorectal surgery are:
Discharge: Usually 3 to 4 days after the procedure.
Medication: Pain relievers and antibiotics are generally prescribed.
Review: Usually one day 5-7 after the procedure.
Resumption of normal activities: Usually with some restrictions 10- 15 days after the procedure.
Some measures that may be taken after Laparoscopic colon surgery include:
Some complications that are associated with Laparoscopic colon surgery may include:
The prognosis for Laparoscopic colon surgery generally depends on the underlying condition that is being treated as well as on the general health of the individual. The morbidity and mortality associated with Laparoscopic colon surgery are generally less when compared to open surgery.
Hospitalization will be required for Laparoscopic colon surgery or colorectal cancer surgery.
Laparoscopic colon surgery will be done by specialists from the Department of Interventional Endoscopic Surgery and Functional Bowel Gastroenterology.