Endoscopic ultrasound is a minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure that combines endoscopy and ultrasonography. It is mainly used for investigation and management of conditions and diseases that affect the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs. This uses a higher frequency of waves than traditional ultrasonography. It provides greater access and highly detailed imaging when compared to other imaging procedures used for visualization of the gastrointestinal tract.
Endoscopic ultrasound is an elective procedure.
Endoscopic ultrasound may be of the following types:
The following are some of the indications of endoscopic ultrasound:
Some risk factors for endoscopic ultrasound may include:
Some investigations that may be done before endoscopic ultrasound may include:
Before endoscopic ultrasound, the following are done:
Duration: It can take 30-90 minutes depending on the procedure that is being done.
Anesthesia: Endoscopic ultrasound is done under conscious sedation, and topical anesthesia; general anesthesia is used if the individual is uncooperative.
After sedation and with the individual lying on his/her left side an antispasmodic agent such as hyoscine is given to prevent the movement of the GI tract. If upper endoscopic ultrasound is being done a bite block is placed in the mouth to prevent the individual from biting on the endoscope equipment. In upper endoscopic ultrasound, the tip of the endoscope is lubricated and under visual guidance, the endoscope is passed through the mouth, over the tongue into the oropharynx, down the esophagus, and through the stomach into the small intestine.
If a lower GI tract endoscopic ultrasound procedure is being done the endoscope is passed through the anus into the rectum and the colon and rectal endoscopy or colonoscopy are performed. The endoscope has a transducer inside that emits high-frequency sound waves that help to create images that are viewed on a monitor and are recorded for further review. If any additional procedures such as pancreas biopsy or aspiration are being done, additional equipment is passed through the endoscope using guidewires. After the procedures are completed, the endoscope is withdrawn.
After an endoscopic ultrasound, the following is done:
Common post-procedure occurrences:
Discharge: Usually on the same day depending after the effects of the sedation have worn off.
Medication: Mild analgesics and antibiotics may be prescribed.
Review: Usually on day 5 or 7 after the procedure.
Resumption of normal activities: Usually with some restrictions on the 2ndpostoperative day.
Some measures that may need to be taken after an endoscopic ultrasound procedure may include:
Some complications that may be seen after an endoscopic ultrasound procedure may include:
The prognosis of endoscopic ultrasound is excellent and it is an important procedure in the diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal cancers, especially those that are hard to visualize or stage through other imaging tests.
Hospitalization is not required endoscopic ultrasound.
This can be done by specialists from the Department of Interventional Endoscopy and Gastroenterology.